The Beatles @ the Star Club
The Star Club in Hamburg St. PauliWith the motto "The time of village music is over" announced red posters in the spring of 1962, the opening of the star club in the Great Freedom 39 in Hamburg St. Pauli. The clubs on the Reeperbahn, the Indra, the Kaiserkeller and the Top Ten Club were the birthplace of the beat music of Skiffle and Rock'n'Roll, called "The Hamburg Sound" by contemporaries worldwide. The hard competition, the ambition and the talent of young musicians soon resulted in a new genre of music, which experienced an unspeakable success in the 1960s and laid the foundations of today's pop culture. Here in the Hamburg red light district began the worldwide career of the Beatles. In order to better understand the motivation of the youth of the time and the resulting music, that is, what prompted them to follow this path and thus change the history of music not so much, the zeitgeist and some important events are the key we here want to try to bring you something closer.
Bill Haley and the Riots Bill Haley becomes "The Blackboard Jungle," which will not be shown at the Venice Biennale in February 1955, as it pays tribute to America's image, making it a blockbuster and scandal Published in 1954 and previously unsuccessful single "Rock Around The Clock" to the signature tune for a revolting youth and the inspiration of many musicians of the time. Warning against social violence, however, the film is in many places an occasion for violence: youngsters riot in crowded cinemas, the newsreels show smashed cinemas, fallen cars and street battles with the police. And they know the cause right away: Rock'n'Roll. In the following years the police have to intervene again and again against rampaging "half-strength." When Bill Haley comes to Germany in 1958, there are fights after his concerts.The simple diagnosis, the music is guilty, seems confirmed.The SED central organ "Neues Deutschland "ranted from beyond the Brandenburg Gate: The appearance of the" Rock'n'Roll gangster Haley "is an" orgy of American Unkultur ", the" Rheinische Merkur "speaks indignantly of a" comet of instinctual entanglement. "It already knows the scandal Film itself better: He sees the "seed of violence" (dt title of the film) in the speechlessness between the young and a generation of parents, which is characterized by the war and usually lost their own youth Years later, the "golden 50s" were anything but open and tolerant of young people and minorities.
Corporal punishment was a common means of education, and sex education forced the young adults to renounce sex before marriage and subordinate themselves to the adults without and. Although almost all had young work in the 50s, but they had to really kick it. Under the current youth employment legislation, 14-18 year-olds were allowed to work up to 48 hours a week. When the rock'n'roll came and the youngsters found an outlet for their frustration, the pent-up hatred against the stuffy world of adults escaped. They whistled on the conventions and bigoted hypocrisy, they provoked and the Rock'n'Roll was just the accompaniment to this spectacle, which was to reach its peak in the 60s. The appearance of the "half-strong" was not limited to Germany alone, but could also be observed in many other European countries. For example, in England there were the "Teddy Boys" and the "Ton-Up Boys", in Denmark there were the "Laederjakken", in Spain the "Gamberros", in Austria the "Platten-Brüder", in France the "blouson-noirs "in the Soviet Union the" hooligans ", in Sweden the so-called" Raggare "or" Skinnknuttar "and in Japan the" Taiyozoku. "The Norddeutsche Zeitung wrote on 30.6.1956:" What is wrong with our youth ? - I can say it in one word: the parents. " Lonnie Donegan and Skiffle In January 1956, Lonnie Donegan released the song "Rock Island Line".
Despite the title, there were few connections to unleashed rock music. New and interesting, however, was the fact that the number was played on instruments that were easy to handle and master. Donegan popularized "Skiffle" on guitars, washboard and tea box bass. For the first time anyone could easily play it without any previous musical knowledge, making music making no longer exclusively a matter for professional musicians. It was suddenly possible for anyone to produce musically and so flared in England on all corners skiffel bands on. Elvis Presley and the Sex Appeal The most exciting event in pop music of the fifties, like the most influential single personality in pop business ever to the Beatles, was Elvis Presley. He also prevailed in the first half of 1956. By May, his famous "Heartbreak Hotel" had reached the top of the hit lists in fourteen countries. It is the first record in the American music business to achieve placement in three categories of charts at the same time: Pop, Rhythm & Blues and Country & Western. In July, his version of Hound Dog (first released in 1953 with blues singer Willie Mae Thornton) and ranked No. 1 in all three categories of the former charts.
Actually, a phenomenon like Elvis was already to be expected from the outset. All you had to do was see Bill Haley personally. He was chubby, a middle-aged man and not at all sexy. This new exciting music, Rock'n'Roll, almost screamed for an exciting singer who suited her. Rock was the music of the young people. And Elvis was the exciting singer who transported her. "Everything was really cold before Elvis," John Lennon said. The Beatles were seized as well as millions of other young people of the same age. Everyone remembers equally bands that were founded in every school and every street in their village. The virus spread and no one escaped.
The Beatles and the Hamburg Sound When the Beatles performed on December 27, 1960, shortly after their first 16-week stay in Hamburg, as backing act of King Size Taylor & The Dominoes in the Litherland Town Hall near Liverpool, their hard-hitting, from Stamping and trampling literally accompanied hamburger music to hysteria. Instead of the much-anticipated suits and ties, they wore black leather and Pete Best beat the drums with a manic wildness that no one in Liverpool had yet experienced. They played as if the songs meant everything to them. The audience was banned and the promoters were about to sign it. Each of them got six pounds for the night. They had never received so much. That evening, their posters said, "The Beatles, straight from Hamburg," and many of the teenagers who raved that night and many other nights believed they were Germans when the Beatles signed their autographs and the others talked to them They cried out in surprise, "You speak English well." "Probably we looked like Germans too," George Harrison later said. "At least we made a big difference to all the other groups with our leather pants and cowboy boots, we looked weird and we played differently, we hit like a bomb." "It was an evening," John Lennon said, "where we really got out of ourselves and turned up like in Hamburg, we realized we were pretty famous, so for the first time we started to believe that we were actually good. Until Hamburg, we thought we were OK, but not good enough. " Hamburg had changed the Beatles! But not only the Beatles had changed. During their absence in Hamburg, significant changes had taken place in Great Britain. Each group was now obsessed with imitating the Shadows. Cliff Richards personal success had led the Shadows, his backing band, to their own successes. Her instrumental number Apache, released on August 25, 1960, had taken the country by storm and remained at No. 1 on the British charts for six weeks. Each group imitated their sober, terribly decent and smart stage attire: gray suits, the same tie, and polished shoes. The Shadows made small dance steps, three to the left, three to the right. The Beatles, on the other hand, played loud and wild. They looked shabby and neglected. They had stuck to their rock'n'roll style, which the Shadows had meanwhile killed. They had developed in Hamburg by additional pounding, by electrical amplifiers and wild "Mach Schau" on stage to even wilder Rock'n'Rollern. They had developed a very unique, new sound effect: a sound that was light-years away from the brave Shadows. A sound that you had to run from and cover your ears to, or you had to become as uninhibited and ecstatic as the young people who produced it. "That's thanks to Hamburg," said John Lennon. "That's where we really got started: to get the Germans going and keep things going for twelve hours, we had to pound away, never would we have moved in that direction if we had stayed home we try everything we could think of There was no one we could have mimicked. We played what we liked best. And the Germans liked it as long as it was just loud.
But it was not until we got back to Liverpool that we realized the difference and saw what had happened. Everyone else was playing the Cliff Richard crap. "Her own passionate commitment and her personalities were infectious and cast a spell over the listeners, not just a new sound, but also produced by people who, like their listeners, of course Unaffected, uncouth and uncorrupted, they had brought the original rock'n'roll music to life again, and they stepped onto the stage when people like Cliff Richard had emptied that music, and that was the momentum that had flared up the emotions The Beatles exploded into a languid environment, the stuff of screaming, the physical and the atmospheric excitement that symbolized the rebellion of the youth of that time, the Beatles were independent spirits and they played whatever they liked , for fun, for your own fame and for cash, you were fortunate enough to have gained prestige and experience in Hamburg physically magnetic, they were examples: the snappy, moody grandeur of drummer Pete Best and a remarkable array of talented voices. Rhythmic revolutionaries. An idea that was a succession of climaxes from start to finish. A personality cult. Seemingly without ambition and yet between self-assurance and vulnerability oscillating back and forth. Truly a phenomenon - probably something like the Beatles will never happen again.
The Beatles chronology until the breakthrough:
Liverpool 07.07.1940 Born Richard Starkey aka Ringo Starr
Liverpool 23.06.1940 Born Stuart Sutcliffe
Liverpool 09.10.1940 Born John Winston Lennon
Liverpool 24.11.1941 Born Randolph Peter Best
Liverpool 18.06.1942 Born James Paul McCartney
Liverpool 25.02.1943 Born George Harrison
Hamburg 1950 The Indra is opened by Bruno Koschmieder in the Große Freiheit 64 in Hamburg St. Pauli.
USA 12.04.1954 In the US "Rock Around The Clock" by Bill Haley & The Comets is released.
USA Jan. 1956 "Rock Island Line" by Lonnie Donegan appears.
USA 27.01.1956 "Heartbreak Hotel" by Elvis Presley appears and climbs to the top of the hit lists until May.
Liverpool March 1957 John Lennon founds the skiffle band "Blackjacks" with school friends. The blackjack call themselves a short time later in "The Quarrymen".
Liverpool 15.06.1957 John's group "The Quarrymen" plays at the Woolton Parish Church Fete, where Paul is taken away by a friend. John and Paul get to know each other backstage. At this time George plays with the "Rebels".
Liverpool 20.07.1957 Paul becomes a member of the Quarrymen.
Liverpool 18.10.1957 Paul appears for the first time with the Quarrymen.
Liverpool 06.02.1958 George joins the Quarrymen.
Liverpool Nov. 1958 The Quarrymen dissolve.
Liverpool 29.08.1959 John and Paul stay together, George joins the "Les Stewart Quartet", which is to play as a house band in the Casbah Coffee Club. When Les Stewart refuses to perform after fancy rehearsals, George and Ken Brown call John and Paul and ask them to step in. They reappear under the name of Quarrymen.
Liverpool Oct. 1959 After disputes with Ken Brown, the Quarryman dissolve again. John, Paul and George now play as a trio under the name Johnny & The Moondogs.
Hamburg 14.10.1959 The Kaiserkeller is opened. The operator is Bruno Koschmieder, who already runs the Indra Club.
Manchester 26.10.1959 As Johnny & The Moondogs, they take part in the talent competition for the Carroll Levis TV show "Discoveries" in Manchester, but since they have to use public transport for the journey home, they can not stay until the final, in which ultimately the Winner to be determined. So they remain completely unnoticed by the jury.
Liverpool 17.01.1960 Stuart "Stu" Sutcliffe joins the Moondogs as bassist. He suggests the name "The Beatals".
Liverpool 05.05.1960 Allan Williams becomes her first Mannager and gives the Beatals a drummer named Tommy Moore. At the suggestion of Brian Cassar of "Cass And The Casanovas", the name "The Beatals" is ridiculous and far too short, they should call themselves "Long John & The Silver Beetles", they baptize in "The Silver Beetles".
Liverpool 10.05.1960 Prelude with talent seeker Larry Parnes, the "King of British Rock & Roll", as a possible backing band for Billy Fury. They can not fully convince Parnes, but get their first professional engagement as a backing band on a Scotland tour for Johnny Gentle.
Scotland 20.05.1960 Under the name "The Silver Beatles" as a backing band on Scotland tour for Johnny Gentle. Gage: £ 18 per musician and week.
Scotland 28.05.1960 The tour and the hoped for breakthrough end in a fiasco due to scanty public, hunger, exhaustion, lack of money and quarrels.
Neston 02.06.1960 The Silver Beetles rename themselves for a performance in Neston in "The Beatles" and renounce from then on the addition "Silver".
Hamburg 24.07.1960 In order to lure new audiences into the Indra, Bruno Koschmider turns to his Liverpool business partner Allan Williams, the first agent of the Beatles. He invites Bruno Koschmieder to listen to the Beatles in "The Two I's" in Soho.
Liverpool 12.08.1960 Pete Best joins as a drummer in Hamburg.
Hamburg 16.08.1960 The Beatles (John, Paul, George, Stu and Pete) arrive in Hamburg.
Hamburg 19.08.1960 The Beatles are performing in the Indra, but they do not manage to attract new audiences to the Indra, as Koschmieder wanted. Gage per capita and day 30, - DM. 4.5 hours per night, 6 on WE.
Hamburg 03.10.1960 The Indra Club is closed due to disturbance of the peace.
Hamburg 04.10.1960 Koschmieder "relocates" the Beatles from the Indra to the Kaiserkeller, commitment until 16.10. will be on the same evening until 31.12. extended. They play in the hourly change with Rory Storm & The Hurricanes (Ringo Starr on drums) and get straight to the audience.
Hamburg 28.10.1960 The Beatles get to know Astrid Kirchherr, Klaus Voormann and Jürgen Vollmer in the Kaiserkeller.
Hamburg 01.11.1960 contract becomes on official order to 30.11. finished because George is not of legal age.
Hamburg ??. 11.1960 Peter Eckhorn opens the Top Ten Club in the former Hippodrome on the Reeperbahn No. 136. There, the Beatles play as a backing band of Tony Sheridan.
Hamburg 21.11.1960 George Harrison is expelled for minority. Hamburg 01.12.1960 John, Paul, Stu and Pete change into the Top Ten Club and continue alone without George. Hamburg 04.12.1960 John, Paul and Pete celebrate a sex orgy with light girls in their sleeping niches at Bambi Kino, Paul-Roosen-Str. 33. At the same time, a curtain is set on fire. Paul and Pete spend the night in jail.
Hamburg 05.12.1960 Paul and Pete are expelled after an ad from Bruno Koschmieder.
Liverpool 27.12.1960 The Beatles play as opening act for King Size Taylor & The Dominoes at the Litherland Town Hall near Liverpool. The audience is banned and the promoters are about to sign it. Brian Kelly hires her for 36 dance events. Hamburg has changed the Beatles!
Liverpool 01.03.1961 Allan Williams writes a letter to the German Consulate in Liverpool for a renewed engagement in Hamburg and sets up the contract between the Beatles and the Top Ten Club.
Hamburg 27.03.1961 The Beatles return to Hamburg and have 98 appearances in the Top Ten.
Hamburg 22.06.1961 Recordings with Tony Sheridan for Polydor in the Friedrich-Ebert-Halle in Hamburg with Bert Kaempfert (inter alia "My bonnie")
Liverpool 03.07.1961 Return from Hamburg to Liverpool. Performance at Litherland Town Hall in Liverpool.
Paris 29.09.1961 John and Paul travel to Paris.
Paris 09.10.1961 John and Paul visit Jürgen Vollmer in Paris. He cuts them, at their request, the hair on his own model.
Liverpool 09.11.1961 Brian Epstein sees the Beatles at Cavern Club Liverpool for the first time.
Liverpool 03.12.1961 Brian Epstein and the Beatles meet for management negotiations. Brian is angry because Paul is half an hour late.
Liverpool 06.12.1961 Brian Epstein agrees to manage the Beatles.
Liverpool 10.12.1961 Beatles make preliminary contract with Epstein in the Casbah.
Hamburg 30.12.1961 Peter Eckhorn and Tony Sheridan return to Hamburg with Ringo Starr as their new drummer from Liverpool, without having signed the Beatles for the Top Ten Club.
Liverpool 05.02.1962 Ringo Starr jumps in for two gigs on the drums for the sick Pete Best.
Hamburg 10.04.1962 Stu dies of brain hemorrhage
Hamburg 13.04.1962 Manfred Weißleder opens the Star Club in the Große Freiheit 39.
Hamburg 13.04.1962 First, two-week engagement of the Beatles in the Star Club. Gage: 500, - DM per person per week.
Liverpool 09.05.1962 The get a record deal from EMI-Parlophone offered, producer George Martin. Epstein sends a telegram to the Beatles in Hamburg for a Parlophone session on June 6th.
Liverpool 04.06.1962 The Beatles and Brian Epstein sign a preliminary contract with EMI-Parlophone.
London 06.06.1962 First audition with George Martin at Abbey Road Studio 3.
Skegness 14.08.1962 Ringo gets a call from John at Butlin's Holiday Camp in Skegness, who wants him in the band. Ringo says yes.
Liverpool 16.08.1962 Pete Best is thrown out. Brian Epstein tells him that at 11 o'clock in the NEMS Record Shop.
Liverpool 18.08.1962 Ringo Starr comes to the Beatles.
London 04.09.1962 Beatles sign a record deal with Parlophone.
London 11.09.1962 First single "Love me do" / "PS I love you" added.
Liverpool 01.10.1962 Epstein joins the Beatles second management contract for 5 years with 25% profit sharing for Brian Epstein.
UK 05.10.1962 Love Me Do is released as a debut single of The Beatles in England. Brian Epstein buys 10,000 pieces. She reaches number 17 in the charts.
Hamburg 17.10.1962 Manfred Weissleder writes a letter to the foreigners authority, so that Paul McCartney receives visa as well as work permit for Germany, so that he can appear with the Beatles in the Star Club.
Hamburg 01.11.1962 Second, two-week commitment of the Beatles in the Star Club. Gage: 600, - DM per person per week.
London 26.11.1962 Second single "Please Please me" / "Ask me why" added.
Hamburg 18.12.1962 Third engagement of the Beatles in the Star Club until 31.12. Gage: 750, - DM per person per week. They are in Hamburg for the fifth time. UK 1/11/1963 Second single "Please Please Me" appears in England and is ranked # 2 on the charts of the big breakthrough in the Beatles' career!
The rest is history ....